IBM Spectrum Virtualize – Traditional SAN Storage at Twice the Efficiency

There’s a great deal of buzz these days around newer cloud, mobile, social, analytic and Big Data workloads whose storage requirements are causing IT managers to re-think storage infrastructure. But what about the more traditional workloads like transaction systems, email, supply chain, HR, and virtual servers? According to the most recent IDC Worldwide Quarterly Disk Storage Systems Tracker , IT managers continue to spend more on traditional SAN storage – the infrastructure of choice for these workloads – than on NAS, IP SAN and direct attach arrays combined. With over half of the worldwide spend on external storage in play, there’s a lot of efficiency to be gained. IBM Spectrum Virtualize is software defined storage that can deliver twice the efficiency on existing SAN infrastructure.

It can be argued that IBM Spectrum Virtualize is the product that gave birth to the software defined storage movement. I started working with this product back in 2003 (at the time it was called IBM SAN Volume Controller) before the term Software Defined Storage had been coined. A couple years ago as folks were starting to talk about the concept of software defined, I posed a mostly rhetorical question Has IBM created a software-defined storage platform? IBM Spectrum Virtualize embodies the concept and is a cornerstone of the IBM Spectrum Storage software defined family.

IBM Spectrum Virtualize servicesIn every geography of the world, across every industry and size of enterprise, there are IT managers who have built SAN storage infrastructures with EMC, or HP, or Hitachi, or IBM, or any of a number of other vendors, but who have also software defined those infrastructures with IBM Spectrum Virtualize and are enjoying extraordinary benefits. It’s really not very complicated to understand where the savings come from.

When you choose to software define your SAN infrastructure with IBM Spectrum Virtualize:

  • You save money on software licensing costs. SAN storage vendors often charge you for advanced capabilities like snapshot, replication, tiering, and even device drivers. Choosing to software define means you don’t need to pay for these with your SAN storage.
  • You pack more data onto the physical disks you own. SAN disk arrays have boundaries. They are individually wrapped in sheet metal meaning workloads attached to one array can run out of space while workloads attached to another can have an over abundance of capacity. Choosing to software define means the boundaries disappear. Capacity is pooled together and overall utilization is improved. What’s more, IBM Spectrum Virtualize compresses data in real time allowing you to pack as much as 5x the data in the same capacity footprint. This validation from ESG was published about the time the industry was figuring out the idea of software defined.

  • You can choose lower cost disk arrays. SAN storage comes in various flavors. Generally, the higher priced physical arrays are where the enterprise class services are found. Many datacenters have an over abundance of these high end disk arrays simply because their workloads need the more robust services. Choosing to software define decouples the services from the physical storage. With IBM Spectrum Virtualize, you have access to the same enterprise services regardless of what storage tier or vendor you choose for capacity. And Spectrum Virtualize can transparently move data up and down those tiers to keep I/O patterns optimized. In a coming post I’ll talk about the intelligent analytics from IBM Spectrum Control that can help optimize your tiering choices and timing.
  • You can adopt new storage technology more quickly. There’s always something new in SAN storage. More dense disk drives resulting in lower cost per terabyte. Flash storage with much higher throughput. Integrating these new technologies into your SAN and getting your data migrated has been a perennial challenge for IT managers for as long as I’ve been in the storage industry.  Choosing to software define eliminates the problem. IBM Spectrum Virtualize can non-disruptively move data across tiers, vendors, and technologies of SAN storage. If you find a new storage type you want to exploit, plug it into your SAN tell Spectrum Virtualize to move data to it. If you have an old array going off lease, add the replacement to your SAN and tell Spectrum Virtualize to move the data. Software defined means these activities happen without interruption to workloads that are up and running, accessing the data.
  • You can implement ultra high availability using any type of physical storage. Datacenters with the most demanding availability requirements have traditionally been shackled to the most expensive SAN disk arrays because that’s where the most robust replication and fail-over / fail back capabilities were offered. Choosing to software define means you can implement those capabilities on lower cost physical storage. With IBM Spectrum Virtualize, you can implement multi-site ultra high availability configurations including sites at distance that operate as an active-active pair. The benefit of software defined is that this can be done regardless of your choice in vendor or tier of storage.

If you are an IT manager responsible for traditional SAN infrastructure, consider the common functionality, management, and mobility across heterogeneous storage types that can come from software defining your SAN.

And join the conversation with #IBMStorage and #softwaredefined

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IBM Spectrum Accelerate – Enterprise Storage in Minutes

For years, enterprise datacenters have been dominated by traditional disk arrays, things IDC’s Worldwide Quarterly Disk Storage Systems Tracker would categorize as High-end and Midrange disk. Now, I don’t have anything against this kind of storage, in fact my company makes some of the most competitive offerings in these categories. But my last two posts Introducing IBM Spectrum Storage – Inside Perspective and IBM Spectrum Scale – Built for Efficiency, Optimized for Speed have centered on the idea that a shift is being forced by the scale, performance, and cost requirements of workloads like cloud, analytic, mobile, social, and Big Data. Infrastructure shiftThe storage industry needs a new way of doing things that utilizes much lower cost common building blocks with almost unlimited increments in scalability. I’m going to stay on that theme one more time as we talk about IBM Spectrum Accelerate, software defined storage that can help you construct enterprise storage in minutes.

The kind of datacenters being built by both enterprises and the public cloud pioneers for newer workloads are filled with much lower cost common building blocks. Imagine fields of identical computers each with some internal disk capacity. Cloud management software based on OpenStack dynamically schedules workloads onto hypervisors across this field of capacity. Workloads appear, storage is allocated, virtual networks are configured, workloads are dynamically scaled and relocated for optimization, and then they disappear when all the work is complete. This environment is hostile to the relative rigidity of traditional SAN storage. And yet it depends on many of the enterprise storage capabilities that SANs have matured over the years.

The genius of IBM Spectrum Accelerate is that it takes the complete set of enterprise storage capabilities available on one of the industry’s most competitive High-end disk arrays, and enables IT managers to leverage it on common building block hardware. You see, if you were to pull back the covers on the IBM XIV storage system you would discover that the forward-thinking engineers who architected it understood the demands that these newer workloads would bring. Inside the XIV you would find common building blocks – computers with disks – and intelligent software managing them.  IBM is the first company in the industry to extract intelligence directly from its traditional storage hardware products enabling clients to use it as software.

Think about the scenario. An IT manager has created a common building block physical infrastructure for new generation workloads. No SAN, no High-end or Midrange disk arrays. Just a field of low-cost, common building block computers – some with internal disk capacity – and a hypervisor. Workloads are being deployed in virtual machines, but these workloads need enterprise storage services. So the IT manager deploys IBM Spectrum Accelerate software into virtual machines on some of those common building blocks that have internal disk capacity. What happens next is the stuff legends are made of.

IBM Spectrum Accelerate forms those common building blocks and their disks into an iSCSI storage grid. Virtual volumes are spread across all the common building blocks so that all resources are used evenly, including memory in the servers which is formed into a distributed cache. Spectrum Accelerate storage gridFor robustness, each logical partition is stored in at least two copies on separate building blocks, so that if a part of a disk drive, an entire disk drive, or an entire building block fails, the data is still available. Since all resources in the grid are evenly utilized, all resources are engaged in quickly getting the system back to redundancy following a failure. If after the initial deployment, the IT manager wants to scale capacity, Spectrum Accelerate software can be deployed in virtual machines on additional building blocks. When the new building block joins the grid, data is automatically redistributed to maintain optimal use of resources. And this software defined storage system, deployed in minutes, includes all the enterprise storage capabilities IT managers have come to expect – thin provisioning, writable snapshots, synchronous and asynchronous replication with consistency groups, and failover/fail back.

If you are an IT manager, consider the rapid flexibility and potential cost benefits of this software defined approach to constructing enterprise storage.

And join the conversation with #IBMStorage and #softwaredefined

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IBM Spectrum Scale – Built For Efficiency, Optimized For Speed

The pioneers in the cloud movement have blazed a new trail when it comes to physical infrastructure. I briefly discussed their Pets vs Cattle approach in my post Introducing IBM Spectrum Storage – Inside Perspective. These guys thought about the scale, performance, and cost requirements that would be driven by workloads like cloud, analytic, mobile, social, and Big Data, and they decided that traditional infrastructures had to change. IBM Spectrum Scale Built for efficiency Optimized for speedWe needed a new way of doing things that utilized much lower cost common building blocks with almost unlimited increments in scalability. Something built for efficiency and optimized for speed. A software defined storage layer that crafts these common storage building blocks into massively scalable and deeply capable storage systems is IBM Spectrum Scale.

To do the job, this layer of storage software must have a couple of important attributes.

  1. Software defined storage has to cobble together common building blocks into a reliable storage system that quickly delivers data to workloads over a variety of protocols. The technology behind IBM Spectrum Scale began in IBM research over 20 years ago and earned its stripes with some of the most demanding scientific, digital media, and Big Data workloads on the planet. IBM Spectrum Scale common building blocksToday, it’s the software defined storage layer behind many of the 500 most powerful computer systems in the world. With the rise of cloud, analytic, mobile, and social workloads, we have been adapting additional file and object protocols to this extreme scale and performance. IBM Spectrum Scale can now deliver data over POSIX, NFS, a Hadoop connector and the OpenStack Swift object interface with more protocols being added regularly. I’ll talk about block protocols in future posts on IBM Spectrum Virtualize and IBM Spectrum Accelerate.
  2. Software defined storage has to deliver the kind of data management and security capabilities required to keep common building block infrastructures running efficiently. Snapshots, replication and encryption have become table stakes. IT managers now look for distinguishing characteristics like sophisticated tiering policies that can take disk-based data and move it ‘up’ to Flash storage or Flash cache on the computer where the workload is running, and ‘down’ to tape and the cloud. You can find all these capabilities in IBM Spectrum Scale and that’s good, but they are capabilities that have a somewhat single-site feel to them. “My data is here on-premises – make a snapshot, encrypt it, move it to another tier”. The cloud adds a more global dimension to storage. IBM Spectrum Scale AFMIBM Spectrum Scale capitalizes on this idea buy enabling IT managers to connect Spectrum Scale instances across an enterprise or around the world to create a single inventory of data with policies that define the location and flow of files – moving the right data to the right place at the right time [Learn more here]. Importantly, because this global namespace can house something like 9 quintillion files (did I mention high scale?) for varying workloads with different data management needs, IBM Spectrum Scale enables IT managers to apply data management and security policies to individual sets of files.

As the public cloud pioneers observed, a key is the ability to utilize common building block storage hardware. I’ll give you a practical example. IBM Spectrum Scale is software defined storage available as software, appliance or cloud service. IBM Elastic Storage ServerAn example appliance is the IBM Elastic Storage Server which combines Spectrum Scale software with dense, low cost, common building block disk drawers. The Elastic Storage Server also includes IBM Spectrum Scale RAID, a software implementation of declustered RAID where RAID is done at a block level as opposed to a disk level. As disks continue to get larger, traditional RAID begins to struggle and rebuild times can be measured in hours or days. IBM Spectrum Scale RAID measures rebuild times in minutes. Think about the implications for IT managers – a massively scalable and deeply capable storage system without a SAN or RAID controller, just software defined storage and a pile of dense JBOD drawers.  There is indeed a big shift taking place in the storage market.

Join the conversation with #IBMStorage and #softwaredefined.

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Introducing IBM Spectrum Storage – Inside Perspective

Blank Direction GuideEvery once in a long while there are discoveries that, well, change everything. Stuff like discovering the earth isn’t flat, it’s round. People talked about that possibility for centuries but it wasn’t until a Ferdinand Magellan expedition stepped out and circumnavigated the globe that everything changed. In some ways, today’s announcement of IBM® Spectrum Storage™  has done the same thing for the idea of software defined storage.

A good deal of the change we are experiencing in IT can be traced back to the advent of cloud computing. The pioneers in the cloud movement were public cloud providers like Amazon, RackSpace and SoftLayer. When compared to traditional IT infrastructures used by most private enterprises, these guys approached infrastructure in a completely new way. Microsoft engineer William Baker is credited for famously describing these two differing approaches as Pets vs Cattle. The analogy goes something like this:

In a traditional infrastructure, you think of machines as pets. You give them names and care for their well-being. When they get ill, you nurse them back to health. In a cloud infrastructure, you think of your machines as cattle. You give them numbers because they are all identical, and when one gets ill, you shoot it and get another cow.

The observation public cloud providers made was that cloud infrastructures should use cattle.

 

BOOM!  

 

 

From that point, the industry transition was on. Common building block hardware was on the rise. The ideas of availability and recovery, of scale and performance were being built into software rather than depending on a more expensive physical infrastructure to provide it.  Newer workloads for mobile, social, analytics and Big Data were being built with an expectation of software defined cattle infrastructure. For IT managers, it represented a big move that was going to take some re-thinking. For vendors like IBM who clients trust to help them through transitions like this, it represented an opportunity to focus.

compass 2014In 2014, you may have noticed a number of really bold moves IBM made that were all, in some way, tied to this transition. IBM’s System x server division joined Lenovo accelerating their journey toward becoming the #1 provider of x86 building block hardware. The OpenPOWER Foundation was established making IBM’s POWER microprocessor architecture and software available to open development. This is helping the industry build advanced server, networking, storage and graphics technology aimed at delivering more choice, control and flexibility to developers of next-generation cloud data centers. And GLOBALFOUNDRIES announced their intention to acquire IBM’s commercial semiconductor technology business allowing IBM to better focus on fundamental semiconductor research and the development of systems that will be used with the new cloud workloads. Innovation AheadCoupled with these moves, IBM has directed its considerable innovation in areas of client value where we excel, one of those being Software Defined Storage.

The industry has been talking about the idea of software defined storage for a while. For that matter, I’ve been talking about software defined storage for a while. But compared to today, this was all sort of like people talking about the world being round. Analysts proposed concepts, some vendors marketed their visions, there were even a few fairly successful point products…until today. Today, somebody stepped out and actually delivered the first comprehensive family of software defined storage offerings that can centrally manage yottabytes of data on more than 300 different storage devices – whether SAN and NAS “pet” infrastructure or common building block “cattle” infrastructure…  and everything changed.

The leaderAlready recognized as the #1 provider of software defined storage platforms, IBM’s introduction of IBM Spectrum Storage incorporates more than 700 patents and is backed by plans to invest more than $1 billion over the next five years toward propelling the use of software defined storage in any form – as software, appliance or cloud service. In coming weeks, I’ll be highlighting the members of the IBM Spectrum Storage software defined family.

Join the conversation with #IBMStorage and #softwaredefined.

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Adventures

Just over 20 years ago I received one of the three greatest gifts of my life – the other two being salvation and my sweet wife. For those of you who are fathers, especially fathers of a beautiful little girl, you know the feeling I had back in 1994 when I held my daughter for the first time. Indescribable.  You hold in your hands a life that has been uniquely created   for a specific purpose and it’s your job to help shape her for whatever lies ahead.

One of the character traits I determined I wanted her to have was the confidence to try new things, to explore, to reach, to go on adventures. It’s okay to figure out you don’t like something, but don’t be timid about trying. So, from early in her life I would take her on adventures – encourage her to try.

Climb high!

Climb highExplore a cave!

Explore a caveStand on the edge of the world!

Stand on the edge of the worldFly in a hot air balloon!

Fly in a hot air baloonVenture out into nature!

Venture out into natureLearn to ski!

Learn to skiBecome an expert!!

Ski blackMaster the mountain!!!

Ski double blackBe the gondolier on a Venetian gondola!

Be a gondolierExplore under the sea!

Explore under the seaDance with a dolphin!

Dance with a dolfinWhen she reached college a couple years ago I told her my job was done. She had developed a quiet confidence to explore. From here on out the adventures were up to her. Little did I know that after she had endured a lifetime of me pushing her beyond her comfort zone, she would be looking for a little payback. But that’s exactly what happened.

Last week while on an end-of-summer family vacation, my daughter said to me “hey daddy, look at that sketchy little plane over there… “

Skydive Kauai 1Then she said “Let’s go on an adventure!” The next thing I know I’m standing with her all strapped up to not only get in that crazy plane, but to jump out of it at 10,000 feet. That’s right, the ‘adventure’ she chose was skydiving. Good grief!

Skydive Kauai 2So we get to altitude, the door flings open, and there goes my daughter.

Skydive Kauai 3Now I’m thinking, “I’ve drug her on all kinds of adventures for most of her life, what kind of a dad would I be if I chickened out?” So the next thing you know I’m out the door after her!

GOPR8995The expert folks at Skydive Kauai brought us both down safely. The pictures I saw shortly after returning to earth confirmed that my daughter has indeed developed a genuine passion for reaching, for exploring, for going on adventures. In her face was pure joy!!

Skydive Kauai 5Skydive Kauai 6Skydive Kauai 7Skydive Kauai 9Skydive Kauai 10Skydive Kauai 11Way to go baby girl! Never stop going on adventures!!!

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The Pulse of the Cloud

baseball player hittingThose of us who live in the northern hemisphere generally love this time of year. We are on the downhill side of winter and about a month from the beginning of spring. Many of my friends here in the United States are already swinging baseball bats (or at least watching their children swing baseball bats). And at IBM, the smell of Pulse is in the air. Next week in Las Vegas, thousands of our valued clients and trusted partners will engage in a bold discussion on Cloud.

For those who are attending the Pulse Open Cloud Summit on Sunday February 23, or the main Pulse sessions beginning Monday February 24, one speaker of particular interest should be Jamie Thomas, General Manager, IBM Software Defined Systems. Take a moment to follow her on Twitter.

IBM CloudI was able to get advance copies of both Jamie’s main tent keynote Monday morning at 10am (session KEY-2550A) and her Cloud & Software Defined Environments (SDE) track kickoff Monday afternoon at 1pm (session CET-1463A). Jamie is a bold thinker and you should expect to walk away with good perspective on Cloud and SDE.

Jamie’s keynote centers on how cloud is changing the way work gets done. The lines between business leaders, developers and IT operations are blurring as they work in concert to compose new business models in a dynamic cloud. You’ll want to pay special attention as Jamie will be making some big announcements around IBM’s open community participation and a new composable environment to enable developers to rapidly build, deploy, and manage their cloud applications.

IBM SDE Open CommunitiesThe track kickoff lays the groundwork for a thorough week of Cloud and SDE sessions. Jamie will explain the business and technology dynamics that are pushing IT toward a new generation of infrastructure and she’ll give you a rich glimpse into how IBM is working in an open community context to make that infrastructure a reality. Some themes to watch for will be:

  • application aware – a great benefit of clouds and SDE is that they know something about the applications they are servicing
  • automation – SDE is automation for cloud
  • resource smart – you need to make the most effective use of you chosen hardware
  • openness – open source and open standards accelerate innovation and enable flexibility

Whether you are an IT decision maker, an architect, or a practitioner simply interested in the kinds of skills you’ll soon need to master, this session will help you organize your thinking.

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Prophecy Fulfilled

This is a follow-up to the post on My Story. For context, it’s worth a few minutes to read the original post. For those who are interested in more information, I have outlined specific Old Testament prophecies and their New Testament fulfillment. If after reading it you still want more of the story, pick up a modern translation of the New Testament and read the book of Luke.

The Jewish Bible, what more or less corresponds to what most non-Jews call the Old Testament, was written over a 1500-year period and contains over 300 references to the coming Messiah. The Old Testament was completed nearly 450 years B.C. and was translated into Greek in 250 B.C.

Another two hundred and fifty years later in the person of Jesus Christ, every one of the Old Testament prophecies about the coming Messiah was fulfilled. And these aren’t just things that He could have read and mimicked. Most were beyond the control of a normal man. The New Testament records the fulfillment.

prophecy fulfilledHe was born how and where the Old Testament predicted.

Prophecy:
Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call his name Immanuel.” Isaiah 7:14
Fulfillment:
“…she was found to be with child by to Holy Spirit. And Joseph…kept her a virgin until she gave birth to a Son; and he called His name Jesus.” Matthew 1:18, 24, 25 also Luke 1:26-35

Prophecy
Speaking to Abraham; “And in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.” Genesis 22:18
Fulfillment:
“The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.”
Matthew 1.1
“Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed. He does not say, ’and to seeds’ as referring to many, but rather to one, ‘and to your seed,’ that is Christ.” Galatians 3:16

Prophecy:
But as for you Bethlehem…From you One will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel. His goings forth are from long ago, From the days of eternity.” Micah 5:2
Fulfillment:
“…Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea…” Matthew 2:1 also John 7:42 and Luke 2:4-7

He came because we have a problem.

“For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” Romans 3:23
In other words, we have all messed up at one point in our lives making us fall short of God’s perfection.

So what?
“For the wages of sin is death…” Romans 6:23
That means eternal separation from God – Hell.

But…
“The Lord is not slow about His promise…but is patient toward you, not wishing for any to perish but for all to come to repentance.” II Peter 3:9

What promise?
“For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world should be saved through Him.” John 3:16-17
“that if you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you shall be saved;” Romans 10:9

The perfect sacrifice, Jesus died in your place.

Jesus was killed by means of Roman crucifixion, a method of execution that did not come into practice in the Jewish system for hundreds of years after the prophecies were written. Crucifixion involved hanging a person on a cross by hammering blunt spikes through the victims’ hands and feet. The legs were often broken to make it impossible for the victim to rise up and take a breath.

Prophecy:
“But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by his scourging we are healed.” Isaiah 53:5
Fulfillment:
“Then he released Barabbas for them; but Jesus he scourged and delivered over to be crucified.” Matthew 27:26

Prophecy:
“…they pierced my hands and my feet.” Psalm 22:16 also Zechariah 12:10
Fulfillment:
“And when they came to the place called The Skull, there they crucified Him…” Luke 23:33

Prophecy:
“…Because He poured out Himself to death, And was numbered with the transgressors,…” Isaiah 53:12
Fulfillment:
“At that time, two robbers were crucified with Him, one on the right and one on the left.” Matthew 27:38 also Mark 15:27, 28

Prophecy:
“He keeps all his bones; Not one of them is broken” Psalm 34:20
Fulfillment:
“…but coming to Jesus, when they saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs.” John 19:33

And darkness fell over the land.

Prophecy:
“And it will come about in that day, declares the Lord God, that I shall make the sun go down at noon and make the earth dark in broad daylight.” Amos 8:9
Fulfillment:
“Now from the sixth hour darkness fell upon all the land until the ninth hour.” Matthew 27:45
Note: because the Jews reckoned twelve hours from sunrise to sunset, it would make the sixth hour near noon and the ninth hour about three o’clock.

And He was buried.

Prophecy:
“His grave was assigned to be with wicked men, yet with a rich man in His death.” Isaiah 53:9
Fulfillment:
“…there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph,…and asked for the body of Jesus…And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb…” Matthew 27:57-60

But what good is a dead Savior?

Jesus knew why He had come to the earth. He knew that He was going to have to die in order to become the perfect sacrifice. He also knew what was going to happen next. And so that there would be no mistake, He told those around Him ahead of time. He told them that He was going to die and that three days later He would rise again. See:

Matthew 12:38-40, 16:21, 17:9, 17:22-23, 20:18-19, 26:32, 27:63
Mark 8:31-9:1, 9:10, 9:31, 14:28 and 58, 10:32
Luke 9:22-27
John 2:19-22, 12:34

And He did!

Fulfillment:
“Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to look at the grave. And behold a severe earthquake had occurred, for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled away the stone and sat upon it. And his appearance was like lightening, and his garment as white a snow; and the guards shook for fear of him, and became like dead men. And the angel answered and said to the women, ‘Do not be afraid; for I know that you are looking for Jesus who has been crucified. He is not here, for He has risen just as He said. Come see the place where He was lying.” Matthew 28:1-6 also Mark 16:1-8, Luke 24:1-9, John 20:1-7

And just to leave no doubt, Jesus then met face to face with over 500 people.
To Mary Magdalene, John 20:14, Mark 16:9
To women returning from the tomb, Matthew 28:9-10
To Peter, later in the day, Luke 24:34, I Corinthians 15:5
To the Emmaus disciples, Luke 24:13-33
To the apostles, Thomas absent, Luke 24:36-43, John 20:19-24
To the apostles, Thomas present, John 20:26-29
To the seven by the Lake of Tiberius, John 21:1-23
To a multitude of 500 plus believers on a Galilean mountain, I Corinthians 15:6
To James, I Corinthians 15:7
To the eleven, Matthew 28:16-20, Mark 16:14-20, Luke 24:33-52, Acts 1:3-12
At the ascension, Acts 1:3-12

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